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Development and Validation of a Screening Scale for Depression in Korea: The Lee and Rhee Depression Scale

Authors
Hwang, Seon HeeRhee, Min KyuKang, Rhee HunLee, Hwa YoungHam, Byung JooLee, Young SunLee, Min Soo
Issue Date
Mar-2012
Publisher
KOREAN NEUROPSYCHIATRIC ASSOC
Keywords
Depression scale; Factor analysis; Validity; Reliability; Diagnostic utility
Citation
PSYCHIATRY INVESTIGATION, v.9, no.1, pp.36 - 44
Indexed
SCIE
SSCI
SCOPUS
KCI
Journal Title
PSYCHIATRY INVESTIGATION
Volume
9
Number
1
Start Page
36
End Page
44
URI
https://scholarworks.korea.ac.kr/kumedicine/handle/2020.sw.kumedicine/12336
DOI
10.4306/pi.2012.9.1.36
ISSN
1738-3684
Abstract
Objective The aim of this study was to develop a culturally sensitive instrument that addressed how individuals express and experience depression to detect this disorder in Koreans. We also assessed the validity, reliability, and diagnostic utility of this scale (Lee and Rhee Depression Scale; LRDS). Methods The sample consisted of 3,697 normal adults selected from 12 administrative districts (Do) and 448 Korean patients diagnosed with depression using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I). Reliability was calculated using Cronbach's alpha Construct validity, discriminant validity, and concurrent validity were also measured. Receiver-operator-characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to evaluate diagnostic efficiency. Results The LRDS was found to be a reliable instrument (Cronbach's alpha=0.95) consisting of six factors: negative thinking about the future, negative thinking about the self; worry and agitation, depressed mood, somatization, and loss of volition. Comparison of LRDS scores discriminated the group of patients with depression from the normal individuals in the control group. The measure showed good concurrent validity in that scores were significantly and strongly correlated with scores on established scales such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), and the D scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-second edition (MMPI-2). Diagnostic efficiency was 77.7%, and the cut-off scores were 65 for males and 70 for females. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to develop a depression-screening scale on the basis of Korean patients' complaints about the disorder. As a culturally sensitive tool, the LRDS will be useful in clinical and research settings in Korea. Psychiatry Investig 2012;9:36-44
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Ham, Byung Joo
Anam Hospital (Department of Psychiatry, Anam Hospital)
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